Having just covered in summary the nature of the brain, we now turn to the much knottier issue of what constitutes the mind. Specifically I want to turn to the nature of self-awareness and true intelligence. Advances in modern computing have left most people with little doubt that we can simulate behavioural intelligence to within certain limits. But there still seems to be that missing spark that separates even the best computer from an actual human being.
That spark, I believe, boils down to recursive predictive self-modelling. The brain, as seen on Monday, can be viewed as a modelling subsystem of reality. But why should it be limited to modelling other parts of reality? Since from an information-theoretic perspective it must already be dealing in abstractions in order to model as much of reality as it can, there is nothing at all to prevent it from building an abstraction of itself and modelling that as well. Recursively, ad nauseum, until the resolution (in number of bits) of the abstraction no longer permits.
This self-modelling provides, in a very literal way, a sense of self. It also lets us make sense of certain idioms of speech, such as “I surprised myself”. On most theories of the mind, that notion of surprising oneself can only be a figure of speech, but self-modelling can actually make sense of it: your brain’s model of itself made a false prediction; the abstraction broke down.